June 11th
2009

Eye Exercises  ⁄  Myopia and Binocular Vision Development, part 1

With myopia (nearsightedness), because of low visual acuity, the ability to fix both eyes on the target is often defective. The point of intersection of the visual axes is called the point of binocular fixation or bifixation.  The point of bifixation must be located on the visual object in order to create the fusion of visual images, which is known as binocular vision. But a lot of people use only one eye to create a picture, which is called monocular vision. This person doesn’t notice the difference because monocular vision can provide a good picture too. If you develop binocular vision, though, it will give you 20% growth of your visual acuity, and you will develop proper visual skills such as three-dimensional vision and depth estimation. These skills will help you cope with the more complex exercises of the dynamic fixation method.

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May 29th
2009

Eye Exercises  ⁄  Focusing Eyesight

Myopic (Nearsighted) people try to see all visual objects at once. In my work, I measure the visual acuity of my patients using an eye chart. There is an appreciable difference between well-seeing and nearsighted persons. The well-seeing person scrutinizes every letter at first, tunes up his vision, and then names the letters. The myopic person tries to see all the letters at once and often says, “I can not see anything.” Surprisingly, when I offer to let them look at each isolated letter, lots of patients can read even the smallest letters in the bottom row. The skill of visually focusing is an important part of good vision. In this lesson, I will tell you how to do it.

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May 18th
2009

Eye Exercises  ⁄  Advanced Extraocular Muscle Warm-up

In the last lesson, I told you how to do extraocular muscle warm-up exercises. If you can feel the difference between the eyeball movements before and after warm-up, you are on the right track!  If you did the warm-up right, your eye movements will become soft and smooth.

Advanced Extraocular Muscle Warm-up

The most important result of the warm-up is to be able to do smooth movements. As I wrote in the last article, Physiology / Function Of Extraocular Muscles, smooth pursuit eye movements are executed by slow tonic fibers. Eyes make pursuit movements if the angular speed of movement is not more than 60-80 degrees per second. To control the eye muscles better, let’s take the half of this speed, 30-40 degrees per second. During abduction, the eyeball moves at 90 angular degrees, which means that we need 2-3 seconds for smooth pursuit eye movement. You must return the eyes to the primary position for 2-3 seconds as well. If you move your eyes faster, you will get saccadic eye movement, which is not good.

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May 13th
2009

Eye Physiology  ⁄  Function of Extraocular Muscles

When I observe a person with nearsightedness, he reminds me of the driver at the steering wheel of a supercar, waiting for the car to start going by itself wherever its owner wishes. When his desire is not executed, he thinks that his car is not like the others. In this article, I will tell you about our eyes’ capabilities, about the quick and exact actions they can perform. I hope, having read it, that you will feel respect for your eyes and that you will want to learn to operate them to release all their potential.

Extraocular muscles are cross-striated but are different than skeletal muscles. They consist of two types of fibers – extrafusal and intrafusal. Extrafusal fibers create the force that drives the movement and fixation of the eyes. Intrafusal fibers control the frequency of the pulsed discharge from the neuromuscular spindles (which sense muscle length).

There are two types of extrafusal fibers: fast phasic (80%) and slow tonic (20%). So eyes can make fast movements (saccade, microsaccade and tremor) and slow ones (smooth pursuit eye movement and drift).

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